Mainly two types of wilt infected the plant. Bacterial wilt and another Fusarium wilt(cause of the fungus).Fusarium wilt is less destructive and can control easily. Any fungicides e.g Blue Copper can control fusarium wilt.
But the bacterial will cannot control easily. Bacterial wilt attacks suddenly and it can reach fast many vegetable crops, trees or shrubs. So it is destructive enough that you must know how to diagnosis and how to treat it.
This article will tell you the cause and treatment of bacterial wilting of banana, tomato, potato, brinjal, chillis, etc.
Before the specialized treatment for specific crops, let’s talk about the Ins and out of the bacterial wilt.
- 1 Bacterial Wilt Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment
- 2 Symptoms and Treatment of Bacterial wilt of specific Crops
Bacterial Wilt Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment
The wilting disease is manifested by wilting the leaves and stems of affected plants. It causes the sudden stop of sap circulation in the vessels of diseased plants because of several possible species of pathogenic bacteria. This phenomenon can lead to the rapid death of plants.
Causes of Bacterial Wilt
Bacterial wilt is mainly caused by Enterobacteriaceae, Erwinia tracheophyta, and Burkholderiaceae, Ralstonia solanacearum. When one of these bacteria infects a plant, it spreads by its vessels from the point of contamination to the main stem, then in all the plant.
Life Cycle of Bacterial Wilt
These bacteria cannot live in a dry atmosphere. However, they can survive in winter in weeds or in the digestive tract of certain insect pests such as beetles, locusts or various insects. They can also survive in greenhouse plants.
In spring, during the rapid growth phase of various plants that are susceptible, these bacteria mechanically come into contact with them penetrate by wounds of their epidermis. Cultural care or insects are responsible for these wounds. The presence of an aqueous film around the wounds facilitates this penetration.
Plants Susceptible To Bacterial Wilt
Many cultivated vegetable or ornamental plants species can undergo their attacks. Many Cucurbitaceae can infect with Erwinia tracheiphila. Melon and cucumber are particularly sensitive, squash and watermelon a little less. Solanaceae crops (tomatoes, potatoes, eggplant, peppers) and olive, banana, tobacco are potential victims of Ralstonia solanacearum.
Symptoms and Damage of Bacterial Wilt
The first symptoms appear on isolated leaves or stems, then the whole plant wilts and dies. When the stems of these plants are cut, they can exude a creamy white sap.
Because of the attack Erwinia Tracheophyta, the wilting can limit to a few stolons of melon and immediately invade the plant and eventually plant dies. On large leaves first appears peripheral chlorosis, then they become necrotic.
On tomatoes, Ralstonia solanacearum also causes wilting of leaves and stems, but also the appearance of a bunch of adventitious roots near the soil. This same bacterium causes flowering of the seed potatoes, but also a dark brown vascular ring from which can escape the infected sap of cream color. As for potatoes, when the infection is very advanced, they exude the same whitish liquid from their eyes and their attachment heel.
Notes: Below I have discussed in details about bacterial wilt of Tomato, Banana, Rice, and Potato)
Bacterial Wilt Contamination Factors
The main source of contamination is due to cultural practices (use of infected material) and the introduction of infected plants or tubers (potatoes).
Good to know: seeds do not transmit these infections.
Lastly, a particularly humid climate or untimely irregular watering of the foliage favors the contaminations. The presence of weeds or infected re-seeding is a favorable factor. On the other hand, the presence of dried infected plant residues is not a risk because these bacteria do not survive from one year to another on these dry atmosphere.
Diagnose Bacterial Wilt
You have to diagnosis Bacterial wilt observing the physical signs of wilting and the rapidity of their diffusion in the affected plant.
In case of appearance of a beginning of bacterial wilt, avoid confusing it with wilting of other origins. For example, those due to water stress (usually occurring at temperatures above 35 ° C) are rapidly reversible after water supply. The same applies to the Fusarium fungus attack, which can also cause wilting, but at the same time has rotten collars and bulbs.
Bacterial Ooze test for Diagnosis Bacterial Wilt
Prevent Bacterial Wilt
On a field where crops have already suffered this disease, you can prevent its reappearance by some simple measures to apply:
- Use resistance varieties.
- Mix pseudomonas with compost and treat your soil of the land.
- Mix 10g Streptomycin into 10 Liters water and soak your seedling into the solution about 10 to 20 minutes before transplantation.
- Remove all the weeds around your crop.
- Rotate your crops with plants that are not prone to it. It is advisable to wait for 2 to 3 years before replanting in the same place other plants that are sensitive to it.
- Remove Cucumber beetle and Colorado beetle from your garden (Apply pyrethrin or carbaryl (Sevin) to get rid of these beetle)
Chemical Control for Bacterial Wilt
The fight against bacterial wilt is essentially preventive. Prophylactic measures can prevent or curb the appearance of this plant pathology and the spread of the bacteria. The selection of uninfected plots and the use of pathogen-free seedlings, resistant varieties, and crop rotation are preventative measures. To limit the spread of the pathogen, contaminated plants and plant residues must be destroyed. Agricultural implements, equipment must be disinfected. If the plants have already affected you can be applied streptomycin: water solution (10g:10L) in 7 days interval with the proper drainage system.
Symptoms and Treatment of Bacterial wilt of specific Crops
You invest a lot of time, labor and money in growing vegetables and crops. I know-how is the pain if a disease destroys everything. I have tried to cover all the topics related to bacterial wilt. If you have any other query, ask me in the comment section below. Hope this bacterial wilt treatment guide can help you.